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Pie Crusts

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Question: What were medieval pie crusts like?

The exact form of pie crusts in Medieval Europe seems to be a difficult thing to pin down. The current popular perception of the form of Medieval pies is that they had thick, inedible walls. I suspect that this perception was created or reinfoced by pies made in England after the 17th century. For example, the recipe for an 18th century Christmas pie states, "First make a good standing crust, let the Wall and Bottom be very thick..." (Hannah Glasse, The Art of Cookery).

In the following paragraphs I will detail what is documentable about the different types of crusts used in pies, tarts, and the like in Europe. Please note that this is most definately a work in progress and may not be complete - there may be other artwork or recipes that I have not come across yet.


Tarts

While the word "tart" is used interchangeably with "pie" in many sources, I am using it here specifically to mean a filled thin-walled crust lining a dish, with no top crust.

Source [The Neapolitan Recipe Collection, Terence Scully (trans.)]: Torta de Cerase. Tolle cesrase rosse ho piu negre che si possa trovare, he poi caverai fora quello suo osso he pista le cerase in uno mortaro; poi piglia rose rosse he batile - dico, solo le foglie - cum uno cultello molto bene tute; poi habi uno poco de caso fresco he veghio cum specie a discretione, he canella he bono zenzaro cum poco pipero he zucaro, he miscolarai tute queste cose insieme, agiongendoli .vi. ova; et farai una crosta de pasta sopra la padella he cum meza libra de butiro, he ponella ha a cocere, dandoli el foco temperato; he quando he cotta, pone del zucaro he aqua rosata.

Cherry Torte. Get red cherries of the darkest available, remove their pit and grind them in a mortar; then get red roses and crush them well - I mean, the petals alone - with a knife; get a little new and old cheese with a reasonable amount of spices, cinnamon and good ginger with a little pepper and sugar, and mix everything together, adding in six eggs; make a pastry crust for the pan with half a pound of butter and set it to cook giving it a moderate fire; when it is cooked, put on sugar and rosewater. (Italy, 15th C)

Note that the recipe below has a crumb-style top crust.

Source [The Neapolitan Recipe Collection, Terence Scully (trans.)]: Tartare Alla Franzesa de Pome. Fa cocere le pome quale tu vorai ho in aqua ho in mosto cotto, ho in uno tegamo al forno ho sotto le braxe; poi piglia pignoli stati a moglio in aqua una notte, che non siano ranzi, he pistali bene cum le pome; poi piglia assai zucaro he poco de canella, uno poco de zenzaro he un poco de zaffrano, he uno bichero de ova de luzo bene piste he passate per la stamegna, he miscola tute queste cose insieme he passa per la stamegna cm aqua rosada ho altra aqua; poi fa una pasta pigliando zucaro, farina, olio, aqua he sale, he miscola insieme he fa questa pastal, poi distendela sopra lo fondo de una padella bassa, he poi poneralli dentro questa tale compositione che non sia alta piu de uno digito; poi falla cocere a lo forno ho al foco como he dito de le altre torte; poi, quando sera quasi cotta, piglia nevole he spolvarizale de sopra questa Tartara - che siano fate le dite nevole cum bono zucaro; he quando sera cotta, getta de sopra zucaro he aqua rosa.

French-Style Apple Tart. Cook whatever apples you want, whether in water or in must syrup, whether in a baking dish in the oven or under the coals; then get pinenuts that have soaked a night in water, and are not rancid, grind them up with the apples; get a lot of sugar, a little cinnamon, a little ginger, a little saffron and a beaker of ground and strained pike eggs, and mix and strain everything with rosewater or some other water; then make a dough of sugar, flour, oil, water and salt, mix them together to make the dough, spread it over the bottom of a low pan, and put the mixture in so that it is no more than a finger deep; cook it in the oven or on the fire as is directed for the other tortes; when almost cooked, get wafers, crumble them over the Tart - those wafers should be made with good sugar; when cooked, garnish with sugar and rosewater. (Italy, 15th C)

Source [A new booke of Cookerie, John Murrell]: A Cherry Tart. Bruyse a pound of Cherries, and stampe them, and boyle the sirrup with Sugar. Then take the stones out of two pound: bake them in a set Coffin: Jce them, and serue them hot in to the Boorde. (England, 1615)


Pies

Again, many period sources fail to differentiate between "pie" and "tart". I use the word "pie" here to mean a filled thin-walled crust lining a dish, and covered with a top crust.

Source [Curye on Inglish, Constance B. Hieatt & Sharon Butler (eds.)]: Tartee, Form of Curye 172 - Take pork ysode; hewe it and bray it. Do therto ayren, raisouns corauns, sugur and powdour of gynger, powdour douce, and small briddes theramong, and white grece. Take prunes, safroun, and salt; and make a crust in a trap, and do the fars therin; and bake it wel and serue it forth. (England, 13th C)

Source [Curye on Inglish, Constance B. Hieatt & Sharon Butler (eds.)]: Malaches of Pork, Form of Cury no. 162 - Hewe pork al to pecys and medle it with ayren & chese igrated. Do therto powdour fort, safroun & pynes with salt. Make a crust in a trap; bake it wel therinne, and serue it forth. (England, 13th C)

Source [A new booke of Cookerie, John Murrell]: A quarter Tart of Pippins. QUarter them, and lay them betweene two sheetes of Paste: put in a piece of whole Sinamon, two or three bruised Cloues, a little sliced Ginger, Orrengado, or onely the yellow outside of the Orenge, a bit of sweet Butter about the bignesse of an Egge, good store of Sugar: sprinckle on a little Rosewater. Then close your Tart, and bake it: Jce it before it goe to the Boord, serue it hot. This Tart you may make of any puft-paste, or short paste that will not holde the raising. Jf you bake it in any of these kindes of pastes, then you must first boyle your Pippins in Claret Wine and Sugar, or else your Apples will be hard, when your Crust will be burnt and dryed away. Besides, the Wine giueth them a pleasant colour, and a good taste also. Though you boyle your Pippins tender, take heed you breake not the quarters, but bake them whole. (England, 1615)

Source [A new booke of Cookerie, John Murrell]: A Gooseberry Tart. Picke the stalkes of your Gooseberries, and the pips in the toppes: put them in good Paste, with a little greene Ginger, sliced in slices: cast on good store of Sugar, and Rosewater, and so close them. (England, 1615)


Free-Standing Pies

This category includes all self-supporting crusts where no baking dish or pie pan is used.

Source [Liber cure cocorum]: For lamprays bakun. Fyrst scalde þy lamprays fayre and wele, As I tolde byfore, so have þou cele. Soþun, rere a cofyne of flowre so fre, Rolle in þo lampray, as hit may be. Take mynsud onyons þer to, gode wonne, But fyrst take powder of peper, anon Of maces, cloves and graynys also, And dates al hole þou take þerto, Poure rede wyne þerto þou schalle, Coloure hit with safrone and closen alle. In myddes þo lydde an tuel þou make, Set hit in þo ovyn for to bake. 3ete take hit oute, fede hit with wyne, Lay on þo tuel a past fulle fyne, And bake hit forthe, as I þe kenne, To serve in sale before gode menne. (c. 1430)

Source [Das Kuchbuch der Sabina Welserin, H. Stopp (ed.)]: Ain pastetentaig zú machen zú allen auffgesetzten pasteten. Nempt ain mell, das pest, so jr bekomen múgen, vngefarlich 2 gút gaúffen oder darnach jr die grosß oder klain haben welt, thiets auff den disch vnnd riert 2 air mit ainem messer daran vnnd saltzt ain wenig, macht jn ainem pfenndlin ain wasser vnnd wie 2 gúte air grosß schmaltz, last es als anainander ergan vnnd sieden/ darnach schit es an das obgemelt mell ob dem disch vnnd mach ain starcken taig vnnd arbait jn woll, wie dich gút dúnckt, wan es jm somer jst, músß man an des wasser stat ain fleschbrie nemen vnnd an des schmaltz stat ain abscheffet von der súpen nemen, wan der taig gearbait jst, so machent jn zú ainer rúnden kúgel vnnd thenet jn fein mit den fingern vornen aus oder mit ainem walgelholtz/ das jn der mit ain hechin beleib, darnach lands erstaren an der keltin, darnach setzent daig aúf, jn maß jch eúch gezaigt hab/ aúch balten ain taig zú der teckin vnd welget jn zú ainer deckin vnnd nempt ain wasser vnnd bestreichts oben an der deckin vnnd oben an der aúffgesetzten pasten vnnd thiets mitt den fingern woll zusamen, last an ainem ort ain klain lechlin, vnd das es woll zúsamengedruckt sey, das nicht offenstand/ blassen jn das lechlin, das jr gelassen habt, so wirt die deckin hibsch aúfflaúffen, so trúcken das lechlin von stúnd an zú, darnach thits jn offen, set vor ain mell aúff die schissel/ secht, das jr den offen recht haitzt, so wirt es ain schene pasteten, also macht man all aúffgesetzt pasteten den taig. (Germany, c. 1553)

Source [Das Kuchbuch der Sabina Welserin, V. Armstrong (trans.)]: 61 To make a pastry dough for all shaped pies. Take flour, the best that you can get, about two handfuls, depending on how large or small you would have the pie. Put it on the table and with a knife stir in two eggs and a little salt. Put water in a small pan and a piece of fat the size of two good eggs, let it all dissolve together and boil. Afterwards pour it on the flour on the table and make a strong dough and work it well, however you feel is right. If it is summer, one must take meat broth instead of water and in the place of the fat the skimmings from the broth. When the dough is kneaded, then make of it a round ball and draw it out well on the sides with the fingers or with a rolling pin, so that in the middle a raised area remains, then let it chill in the cold. Afterwards shape the dough as I have pointed out to you. Also reserve dough for the cover and roll it out into a cover and take water and spread it over the top of the cover and the top of the formed pastry shell and join it together well with the fingers. Leave a small hole. And see that it is pressed together well, so that it does not come open. Blow in the small hole which you have left, then the cover will lift itself up. Then quickly press the hole closed. Afterwards put it in the oven. Sprinkle flour in the dish beforehand. Take care that the oven is properly heated, then it will be a pretty pastry. The dough for all shaped pastries is made in this manner. (Germany, c. 1553)

Source [Curye on Inglish, Constance B. Hieatt & Sharon Butler (eds.)]: XXVII - For To Make Flownys In Lente. Tak god Flowr and mak a Past and tak god mylk of Almandys and flowr of rys other amydoun and boyle hem togeder' that they be wel chariaud wan yt is boylid thykke take yt up and ley yt on a feyr' bord so that yt be cold and wan the Cofyns ben makyd tak a party of and do upon the coffyns and kerf hem in Schiveris and do hem in god mylk of Almandys and Figys and Datys and kerf yt in fowr partyis and do yt to bake and serve yt forth. (England, c. 1390)

Source [Liber cure cocorum]: To keep herb3 over þe wyntur. Take floure and rere þo cofyns fyne, Wele stondande withouten stine. Take tenderons of sauge with owte lesyng, And stop one fulle up to þo ryng. Þenne close þo lyd fayre and wele, Þat ayre go not oute never a dele, Do so with saveray, percil and rewe. And þenne bake hom harde, wel ne3e brende. Sythun, kepe hom drye and to hom tent. Þis powder schalle be of more vertu, Þen opone erþe when hit gru. (England, c. 1430)

Source [A new booke of Cookerie, John Murrell]: To make an Vmble Pye, or for want of Vmbles to doe it with a Lambes head and Purtenance. BOyle your meate reasonably tender, take the flesh from the bone, and mince it small, with Beefe suit and Marrow, with the Liuer, Lights, and Heart, a few sweet Hearbs and Currins. Season it with Pepper, Salt, and Nutmeg: Bake it in a Coffin raised like an Umble Pye, and it will eat so like vnto Umbles as that you shall hardly by taste discerne it from right Umbles. (England, 1615)

Source [A new booke of Cookerie, John Murrell]: To make an Oyster Pye. SAue the liquour of your largest Oysters, season them with Pepper, and Ginger, and put them into a Coffin: put in a minst Onyon, a few Currins, and a good piece of Butter. Then poure in your sirrup, and close it. When it is bakte, cut vp the Pye, and put in a spoonefull of Uinegar, and melted Butter: shake it well together, and set it in againe into the Ouen a little while: Then take it out, and serue it in. (England, 1615)

Source [A new booke of Cookerie, John Murrell]: To bake redde Deere. PArboyle it, and presse it, and let it lye all night in redde Wine, and Uinegar: then Lard it thicke, and season it with Pepper, Salt, Cloues, Mace, Nutmeg, and Ginger. Bake it in a deepe Coffin of Rye-paste, with store of Butter: let it soake well. Leaue a vent-hole in your Pye, and when you draw it out of the Ouen, put in melted Butter, Uinegar, Nutmeg, Ginger, and a little Sugar: shake it very well together, and put it into the Ouen againe, and let it stand three or foure houres at the least, to soake throughly, when your Ouen is colde take it out, and stop the hole with Butter. (England, 1615)

It is commonly believed that standing crusts in period had walls about an inch thick that were inedible - which is true for modern English standing crusts like the ones used for Melton-Mowbray pies. As shown by the recipe below, this is not always the case.

Source [The Good Huswifes Handmaide for the Kitchen, Stuart Peachey (ed.)] To make Paste, and to raise Coffins. Take fine flower, and lay it on a boord, and take a certaine of yolkes of Egges as your quantitie of flower is, then take a certaine of Butter and water, and boil them together, but ye must take heed ye put not too many yolks of Egges, for if you doe, it will make it drie and not pleasant in eating: and yee must take heed ye put not in too much Butter for if you doe, it will make it so fine and short that you cannot raise. And this paste is good to raise all manner of Coffins: Likewise if ye bake Venison, bake it in the paste above named. (England, c. 1588) [emphasis added]

The images below, which show free-standing pies with notably thin walls, also contradict (at least partly) the notion that standing pie crusts were thick and inedible.

Notice in the following picture that a substantial portion of the crust is missing completely. Presumably it was eaten.


Pasties

"Pasties" are those that do not support their own weight, and where no baking dish or pie pan is used.

Source [Libellus De Arte Coquinaria, Rudolf Grewe, Constance B. Hieatt (eds.)]: Recipe XXX. Quomodo condiatur pullus in pastello. Man skal et unct høns i tu skæræ oc swepæ thær um helæ salviæ blath, oc skær i spæk oc salt, oc hyli thæt hø mæth degh; oc latæ bakæ i en hogn swa sum brøth. Swa mughæ man gøræ allæ handæ fiskæ pastel, oc fughlæ oc annæt køt.

Recipe XXX. How to prepare a chicken pasty. One should cut a young chicken in two and cover it with whole leaves of sage, and add diced bacon and salt. And wrap this chicken with dough and bake it in an oven like bread. In the same way one can make all kinds of pasties: of fish, of fowl, and of other meats. (England, 13th C)

Source [Curye on Inglish, Constance B. Hieatt & Sharon Butler (eds.)]: FOR TO MAKE FLAUMPEYNS. C. XIII. Take clene pork and boile it tendre. þenne hewe it small and bray it smal in a morter. take fyges and boile hem tendre in smale ale. and bray hem and tendre chese þerwith. þenne waisthe hem in water & þene lyes hem alle togider wit Ayrenn, þenne take powdour of pepper. or els powdour marchannt & ayrenn and a porcioun of safroun and salt. þenne take blank sugur. eyrenn & flour & make a past wit a roller, þene make þerof smale pelettes. & fry hem broun in clene grece & set hem asyde. þenne make of þat ooþer deel of þat past long coffyns & do þat comade þerin. and close hem faire with a countoer, & pynche hem smale about. þanne kyt aboue foure oþer sex wayes, þanne take euy of þat kuttyng up, & þenne colour it wit zolkes of Ayrenn, and plannt hem thick, into the flaumpeyns above þat þou kuttest hem & set hem in an ovene and lat hem bake eselich. and þanne serue hem forth. (England, c. 1390)


Pie Crusts Used as a Method of Food Preservation

Source [Liber cure cocorum]: For lyoure best. Take drye floure, in cofyne hit close, And bake hit hard, as I suppose. Þou may hit kepe alle þys fyve 3ere, Þere-with alye mony metes sere. (England, c. 1430)

Source [Liber cure cocorum]: To keep herb3 over þe wyntur. Take floure and rere þo cofyns fyne, Wele stondande withouten stine. Take tenderons of sauge with owte lesyng, And stop one fulle up to þo ryng. Þenne close þo lyd fayre and wele, Þat ayre go not oute never a dele, Do so with saveray, percil and rewe. And þenne bake hom harde, wel ne3e brende. Sythun, kepe hom drye and to hom tent. Þis powder schalle be of more vertu, Þen opone erþe when hit gru. (England, c. 1430)

Source [The Good Huswifes Handmaide for the Kitchen, Stuart Peachey (ed.)] To make a pie to keep long. You must first perboile your flesh + press it, + when it is pressed, season it with pepper and salt whilest it is hot, then lard it, make your paste of rie flower, it must be very thick, or else it wil not holde, when it is seasoned + larded, lay it in your pie, then cast on it before you close it, a good deale of cloves and Mace beaten small, and lay upon that a good deale of Butter, and so close it up: but you must leave a hole in the top of the lid, + when it hath stood two houres in the Oven, you must fill it as full of vinigar as you can, and then stop the hole as close as you can with paste, and then set it in the Oven again: your Oven must bee verie hot at the first, and then your pies will keep a great while: the longer you keepe them the better wil they be: and when ye have taken them out of the oven, and that they be almost cold, you must shake them betweene your hands, and set them into the Oven, be well ware that one pie touch not another by more than ones hand bredth: Remember also to let them stand in the Oven after the Vinigar be in, two houres and more. (England, c. 1588)


Pie Crusts Used as a Baking Dish

Source [A new booke of Cookerie, John Murrell]: To bake a Swan. SCald it, and take out the bones: then parboyle it, and season it well with Pepper, Salt, and Ginger. Then Lard it, and put it in a deepe Coffin of Rye paste with store of Butter. Let it soake well, when you take it out of the Ouen put in more Butter moulten at the venthole. (England, 1615)

Source [A new booke of Cookerie, John Murrell]: To bake a Turkey, or a Capon. Bone the Turkey, but not the Capon: parboyle them, & sticke cloues in their breasts: Lard them and season them well with Pepper and Salt, and put them in a deepe Coffin with the breast downeward, and store of Butter. When it is bakte poure in more butter, and when it is colde stop the venthole with more Butter. (England, 1615)

Source [A new booke of Cookerie, John Murrell]: To bake a Curlew or Hearneshoe. TRusse them, and parboyle them but vpon one side. Seasen them with Pepper, Salt, and Ginger. Put them in deepe Coffins, with store of Butter, and let the heads hang out for a show. (England, 1615)


Boiling Fat into Flour Method

Source [The Good Huswifes Handmaide for the Kitchen, Stuart Peachey (ed.)] To make Paste, and to raise Coffins. Take fine flower, and lay it on a boord, and take a certaine of yolkes of Egges as your quantitie of flower is, then take a certaine of Butter and water, and boil them together, but ye must take heed ye put not too many yolks of Egges, for if you doe, it will make it drie and not pleasant in eating: and yee must take heed ye put not in too much Butter for if you doe, it will make it so fine and short that you cannot raise. And this paste is good to raise all manner of Coffins: Likewise if ye bake Venison, bake it in the paste above named. (England, c. 1588)

Source [The Good Huswifes Handmaide for the Kitchen, Stuart Peachey (ed.)] To make short paste in Lent. Take thick Almond milke seething hot, and so wet your flower with it: and Sallet oyl fryed, and Saffron, and so mingle your past altogether, and that will make good paste. (England, c. 1588)

Source [Das Kuchbuch der Sabina Welserin, V. Armstrong (trans.)]: 65 The dough for the pastry. Take rye flour, according to how large the fish is, take it, and put water, about three pints, in a pan and a good quarter pound of fat into it, and let it cook together, put the flour on the table and put the solids from the melted fat-water on top, until it makes a good firm dough. You must knead it well so that it becomes good and sticky. Afterwards make two parts out of it. First the bottom, roll it out as large as the fish is. After that lay the fish on the bottom crust and roll out the top crust just as wide and put it over the fish and shape it like the fish. Make fins on it and take a small knife and make dough scales, also eyes and everything which a fish has. And put it in the oven and spread it with an egg. Then you have a fish pastry. (Germany, c. 1553)


Other Methods

Source [A Proper Newe Booke of Cokerye, Anne Ahmed (ed.)] To make short paest for tarte. Take fyne floure and a cursey of fayre water and a dysche of swete butter and a lyttel saffron, and the yolckes of two egges and make it thynne and as tender as ye maye. (England, c. 1557)

Source [The Good Huswifes Handmaide for the Kitchen, Stuart Peachey (ed.)] To make fine Paste a nother way. Take Butter and Ale, and seeth them together: Then take your flower, and put thereinto three Egs, Sugar, Saffron, and salt. (England, c. 1588)


Unknown Type and/or Method

Source [Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books, T. Austin (ed.)]: .I. Tartes de chare. - Take Freyssche Porke, & hew it, & grynd it on a mortere; & take it vppe in-to a fayre vesselle; & take þe whyte an þe 3olkys of Eyroun, & strayne into a Vesselle þorw a straynoure, & tempere þin Porke þer-with; þan take Pynez, Roysonys of Coraunce, & frye hem in freysshe grece, & caste þer-to pouder Pepir, & Gyngere, Canelle, Sugre, Safroun, & Salt, & caste þer-to, & do it on a cofynne, & plante þin cofynne a-boue with Pyne3, & kyt Datys, & gret Roysonys, & smal byrdys, or ellys hard 3olkys of Eyroun; & 3if þou take byrdys, frye hem on a lytel grece or þow putte hem on þin cofynne, & endore with 3olkys of Eyroun, & Safroun, & lat bake til it be y-now, & serue forth. (England, c. 1450)

Source [Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books, T. Austin (ed.)]: .xv. Doucete3. - Take Creme a gode cupfulle, & put it on a straynoure; þanne take 3olkys of Eyroun & put þer-to, & a lytel mylke; þen strayne it þorw a straynoure in-to a bolle; þen take Sugre y-now, & put þer-to, or ellys hony forde faute of Sugre, þan coloure it with Safroun; þan take þin cofyns, & put in þe ovynne lere, & lat hem ben hardyd; þan take a dysshe y-fastenyd on þe pelys ende; & pore þin comade in-to þe dyssche, & fro þe dyssche in-to þe cofyns; & when þey don a-ryse wel, take hem out, & serue hem forth. (c. 1450)

Source [Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books, T. Austin (ed.)]: .xxvij. Pye3 de pare3. - Take & smyte fayre buttys of Porke, & buttys of Vele, to-gederys, & put it on a fayre potte, & do þer-to Freyssche broþe, & a quantyte of wyne, & lat boyle alle to-gederys tyl yt be y-now; þan take it fro þe fyre, & lat kele a lytelle; þan caste þer-to 3olkys of Eyroun, & pouder of Gyngere, Sugre, & Salt, & mynced Datys, & Roysonys of Coraunce; þen make fayre past, and cofynnys, & do þer-on; kyuer it, & let bake, & serue forth [correction; sic = f]. (c. 1450)

Source [The English Housewife, Michael R. Best (ed.)] Of the pastry and baked meats. Next to these already rehearsed, our English housewife must be skillful in pastry, and know how and in what manner to bake all sorts of meat, and what paste is fit for every meat, and how to handle and compound such pastes. As, for example, red deer venison, wild boar, gammons of bacon, swans, elks, porpoise, and such like standing dishes, which must be kept long, would be baked in a moist, thick, tough, coarse, and long lasting crust, and therefore of all other your rye paste is best for that purpose: your turkey, capon, pheasant, partridge, veal, peacocks, lamb, and all sorts of water fowl which are to come to the table more than once (yet not many days) would be baked in a good white crust, somewhat thick; therefore your wheat is fit for them: your chickens, calves' feet, olives, potatoes, quinces, fallow deer, and such like, which are most commonly eaten hot, would be in the finest, shortest and thinnest crust; therefore your fine wheat flour which is a little baked in the oven before it be kneaded is the best for that purpose. (England, c. 1615)

Source [The English Housewife, Michael R. Best (ed.)] Of the mixture of pastes. To speak then of the mixture and kneading of pastes, you shall understand that your rye paste would be kneaded only with hot water and a little butter, or sweet seam and rye flour very finely sifted, and it would be made tough and stiff that it may stand well in the raising, for the coffin thereof must ever be very deep: your coarse wheat crust would be kneaded with hot water, or mutton broth and good store of butter, and the paste made stiff and tough because that coffin must be deep also; your fine wheat crust must be kneaded with as much butter as water, and the paste made reasonable lithe and gentle, into which you must put three or four eggs or more according to the quantity you blend together, for they will give it a sufficient stiffening. (England, c. 1615)

Source [A new booke of Cookerie, John Murrell]: To bake Fallow-Deere in the best manner. BAke it first in his owne blood, onely wipe it cleane, but wash it not, bone it, and skin it, and season it with Pepper and Salt. Then bake it in fine Paste afterward, eyther puft-paste, or short-paste. (England, 1615)


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